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      战国早期墨家:墨翟及其弟子(2)

      发布时间: 2019/9/27 0:59:50 被阅览数: 次 来源: 思问网
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      “非攻”反映了墨家学派反对发动不义之战的和平愿望。“兼爱”主张天下人互爱互利,不要互相攻击,这就必然要主张“非攻”。当时兼并战争剧烈,农、工、商、士等庶人阶层和下层贵族都希望社会安定,墨家代表了他们要求停止战争的愿望。攻战之害,“春则废民耕稼树艺,秋则废民获敛”,“百姓饥寒冻馁而死者,不可胜数”。而且不仅被攻的国家受害,攻人的国家也要受害;由于兼并战争,将会导致“兼国覆军,贼虐万民”,古代本有一万多国,“今以并国之故,万国有余皆灭”(《非攻下》)。墨子主张弱小国家团结起来,共同抵御大国兼并,这一理论是战国“合纵”的先声。而要求统治者“宽吾众,信吾师”,认为这样“则天下无敌矣”,既发展了孔子“为政以德”的思想,又启迪了孟子的“王道”主张。看来墨子是一个希望能和平统一天下的理想家。墨子“非攻”,但并不反对防御战,墨家的守御是有名的,被称为“墨守”。《墨子·备城门》以下的十一篇中,记载着他们制造和使用防御战具的经验。他们帮助被攻的国家防御抵抗。《公输》篇中记载,当时有名的工师公输般替楚国制造了攻城的云梯,楚国准备用云梯去攻打宋国。墨子在鲁国听到这个消息,急行十天十夜,去游说公输般和楚王。并早派了弟子禽滑厘等三百人,带着守御工具,帮助宋国守城。就这样墨子用实力制止了楚国攻打宋国,及时平熄了一场即将发生的战祸。墨子“非攻”,却也不反对“汤伐桀,武王伐纣”那样的“革命”战争,认为“彼非所谓攻,谓诛也”。这显然汲取了《易传》思想,且直接启迪了孟子的“诛一夫”思想。墨子还把无衣无食的穷人视为“僻淫邪行之民”,主张用兵禁止“寇乱盗贼”的“淫暴”行为,认为“有甲盾五兵者胜,无者不胜,是故圣人作为甲盾五兵”(《节用上》)。这一方面表示墨子主张用武力维护治安;另一方面也说明墨子并不站在下层穷苦民众的立场上,他只是上层平民的政治代表,他要维护其既得利益并保护私有财产。

      “节用”、“节葬”则更明显地代表了上层平民的思想。贵族统治者苛征暴敛,其生活奢侈浪费,加重了民众的负担,使得民不聊生。《节用上》曰:“今天下为政者,其所以寡人之道多,其使民劳,其籍敛厚,民财不足,冻饿死者,不可胜数也。”故墨子主张用财必须用了有利,“凡是以奉给民用则止,诸加费不加于民利者,圣王弗为”,“是故用财不费,民德不劳,其兴利多矣”。墨子的节用爱民思想,继承孔子的节用之教,又加以进一步发挥。宗法贵族讲究“孝道”,而体现“孝道”的重要方式就是奢侈浪费的“厚葬”。墨子反对宗法贵族提倡的“厚葬”、“久丧”,认为这弄得“匹夫贱人死者,殆竭家室”,不利于发家致富,“以此求富,此譬犹禁耕而求获也,富之说无可得焉”。为了庶人“富”家,统治者得“众”、得“治”,墨子提出一套薄葬、短丧的办法,目的在于使人能“疾而从事,人为其所能”。礼仪可以简略,生产不可懈怠,强调节俭求富,这显然是上层平民的思想。墨子反对一切不必要的奢侈浪费,他甚至认为音乐和一切文娱、艺术等都是不必要的,是无用的东西。于是,由“节用”而引申出“非乐”来。当然,这主要是反对贵族“亏夺民衣食之财”的奢侈享乐,不过有许多表现社会文化的东西,也在其反对之列。所以,《荀子·解蔽》中加以批评说:“墨子蔽于用而不知文。”

      “天志”、“明鬼”是墨子利用宗教思想进行说教的一种手段。墨子主张天下人要以“天”为法,认为“天”是要人相爱、相利,不要人相恶、相贼的。“天”兼有、兼食天下之民,所以是兼爱、兼利的。“爱人、利人者,天必福之;恶人、贼人者,天必祸之。”(《法仪》)墨子的“天志”,就是其“兼爱”学说的宗教化。“天欲义而恶不义”,“义”就是“兼爱”、“交利”。统治者顺从“天志”,便要从事于“义”,当然也就是顺从墨子的学说。

      墨子利用了当时流行的鬼神观念,发展为宗教信仰,认为如果人们觉得没有赏贤罚暴的鬼神,就可能胡作非为了。所以,墨子要“明鬼”,要使天下人都相信有鬼神,并且能赏贤罚暴,希望这样能使天下太平。其企图利用宗教鬼神来进行说教的用意,十分明显。墨子把统治者的天鬼变成了庶人的天鬼,对天鬼宗教进行了改造。他并非真信鬼神,旨在对之加以利用。老子不信鬼神,孔子半信半疑,子思有将鬼神自然化的倾向,而墨子则重建了天鬼宗教。墨子的动机也许是善良的,而其方法却是落后的。

      “非命”是墨子反对宗法制天命观的重要思想。贵族统治者利用“天命”学说来巩固自己的地位,强调贵贱是命定的,那就必然要阻碍上层平民的“尚贤”要求和求富愿望。承认了“命”的存在,那么王公贵族便可胡作非为,而无所顾忌,穷人无法摆脱艰难困境,乃自甘下流。一切都是命定,“鬼神”也就无法来发挥赏善罚恶的作用了。所以,墨子否定天命,主张事在人为,为善得赏,为恶受罚。“贤能”应掌权,“暴王”和懒情不肖的“穷人”,都该受罚。子思学派肯定天命,但认为天命可变.所持“革命”思想,实际上是一种改良变通观点;墨子“非命”,否定天命而把命运交给人们自己掌握,这具有更大的进步意义。墨子想彻底“革命”,要“革”掉“天命”之“命”。

      “三表”法反映了墨子注重实际效果、重视实践的思想方法。他以“耳目之实”的直接感觉经验为认识的唯一来源,主张“闻之见之,则必以为有;莫闻莫见,则必以为无”。并据此提出了检验认识真伪的标准,即所谓“三表”:“上本之于古者圣王之事”,“下原察百姓耳目之实”,“废(通‘发’)以为刑政,观其中国家百姓人民之利”。墨子以间接经验、直接经验、社会效果为准绳,将“事”、“实”、“利”综合考察,排除个人主观成见。在名实关系上,墨子提出与孔子截然相反的主张,认为“非以其名也,以其取也”,不是以名正实,而是以实正名,使名副其实。他用从事实出发的观点,来纠正孔子从概念出发的教条主义。但墨子在强调感性经验真实性的同时,却忽视理性认识的作用,甚至故意以有人“尝见鬼神之物,闻鬼神之声”为理由,坚持“鬼神之有”的荒谬结论。这也许是受了老子、孔子主张愚民政策的影响,把他的“明鬼”当作一项愚民措施来实行了。

      墨子在中国逻辑史上第一次提出了“辩”、“类”、“故”等逻辑概念。他要求将“辩”作为一种专门知识来学习,并把“无故从有故”,即无理由者服从有理由者作为辩论原则。墨子的“辩”建立在知类(即知事物之类)、明故(即明了根据、理由)基础之上,属于逻辑类推或论证的范畴。他善于运用类推方法揭露论敌的自相矛盾之处,如其斥责儒家“执无鬼而学祭礼”,就像“无客而学客礼”、“无鱼而为鱼罟”一样荒谬。墨子很讲究逻辑,反对当时儒家模糊不清的思想方法。《公孟》中记载,墨子问儒者“何故为乐”,儒者答:“乐以为乐也。”墨子指出这等于没有回答,好比问“何故为室”,答“室以为室也”一样。墨子认识到了下定义不能同语反复。这确实指出了儒家的缺点,《易传》即偶有同语反复、有解释等于无解释的逻辑毛病。如《易传·系辞》:“是故易者,象也;象也者,象也。”便是如此。不过,“乐以为乐”中,如果前“乐”字指“快乐”,后“乐”字指“音乐”,则尚不能算同语反复。若确实如此,墨子反倒有曲解偷换概念的嫌疑,成为公孙龙辈的先驱了。无论如何,由于墨子倡导,墨家形成了重逻辑的传统;而后期墨家,便建立了第一个中国古代逻辑学体系。

      墨子反对世卿世禄的宗法制,主张通过“尚贤”,选举产生新的能“为万民兴利除害”的统治者,并在此基础上形成新的等级社会。儒家、墨家的等级思想各异,两家的斗争焦点,在于维护还是反对宗法世袭制度。所以,战国初期的儒墨之争,实质上是贵族和平民在政治思想上的交锋。墨子的“尚贤”、“赏罚”理论,对战国法家有很大影响。

      墨子弟子禽滑厘,相传为魏国人。他亦先学儒术,受业于孔子弟子子夏;后学于墨子,尽传其学。他精于攻防城池之术,《墨子·备城门》以下诸篇,盖即墨子与他讨论攻守战术的记录。

      墨家后来曾被贵族统治阶层的人利用。据《吕氏春秋·上德》记载,墨子弟子孟胜,后任墨家巨子,曾为楚国阳城君守城。楚悼王死,阳城君参与旧贵族反对吴起;箭射吴起,误中悼王尸体,遭追究而出逃,封地被没收。孟胜竟为“行墨者之义”,与弟子一百八十三人自杀以殉,酿成惨绝人寰的大悲剧。(作者:高 正)

      编辑:秋痕

      战国早期墨家:墨翟及其弟子(1)
      先秦名家琦辞辨微(1)

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