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      忽必烈治理中原和蒙军的继续南侵(1)

      发布时间: 2008/5/4 10:15:32 被阅览数: 次 来源: 综合
      文字 〖 〗 )

      忽必烈在蒙哥汗时受命治理漠南汉地军国大事。他依靠一批汉人儒生幕僚的帮助,几年内,在中原若干地区内建立起统治秩序,并搜罗和培养了一批治国人才。同时,他还奉蒙哥之命,领兵发动了灭亡大理国和侵掠南宋的两次战争。

      汉族幕僚集团的形成 忽必烈从青年时代就已结识中原文士,熟悉中原汉地的情况。成吉思汗以来,蒙古诸王都兼容各种宗教,以为各教的教士都能“告天”祈福。燕京大庆寿寺海云和尚早为蒙古大汗所尊崇。一二四二年,忽必烈把他请到漠北帐下,问询“佛法大要”养生之道和安天下之法。海云回答说:“我释迦氏之法,恐怕大王不能实行。还是应该访求中原的大贤硕儒,向他们请教古今治乱兴亡之事”。海云去漠北时,路过西京南堂寺,听说寺中的青年僧人子聪博学多才,就邀他同行。子聪十七岁时在邢州当过小吏,不能得志,便到武安山出家,后又寄食南堂寺。他博览群书,精习《易经》和邵雍的《皇极经世书》,通天文、地理、律历和三式、六壬、遁甲等卜算之术。当海云南还时,忽必烈将子聪留在左右。同年,西京怀仁人赵璧也应召到忽必烈左右,被称为秀才。赵璧学习蒙古语,为忽必烈译讲《大学衍义》。忽必烈派蒙古学生十人,向赵璧学习儒书;又派他驰驿四方,聘请中原名士。

      元好问曾经向忽必烈奉上“儒教大宗师”尊号,这在当时可谓是一件大事,不过为后人津津乐道的,还是元好问的那句“问世间情为何物?只叫人生死相许。”

      一二四四年,金朝状元王鹗由赵璧荐引到忽必烈王府,为忽必烈讲《孝经》、《尚书》、《易经》及儒家的政治学和历史,常至深夜。一二四七年,僧子聪推荐他的同学张文谦到忽必烈幕下,被任为王府书记。子聪另一个同学张易也被引用。同年,史天泽的幕僚张德辉被忽必烈召见,推荐名士魏璠、元好问等二十余人。一二五二年,张德辉和金朝名儒元好问北上见忽必烈,奉上“儒教大宗师”尊号,忽必烈欣然接受了这个称号,并特准免除儒户的兵赋。

      窦默、姚枢和许衡是儒学经师,也先后被忽必烈招揽。一二三五年,阔出太子南伐,译史杨惟中命姚枢随军搜求儒、道、释、医、卜者。蒙古军破德安府,俘掳南宋理学家赵复,姚枢从他那里得到二程、朱裹所著书。窦默在金末由蔡州逃难到德安府孝感县,从县令谢宪子学习伊洛性理之书,阔出军南下时也被杨惟中招致。儒生许衡,因同姚枢、窦默结识,三人一起研习程朱道学。一二四九年和一二五○年,窦默和姚枢先后被忽必烈召用。窦默为忽必烈讲解“三纲五常”、“正心诚意”之说,姚枢为忽必烈讲解儒家治国平天下之道。

      按照蒙古的制度,凡诸王、贵戚封地的汉族官员,须将子弟送往封君处作人质。真定府是唆鲁禾帖尼的采邑,藁城令董文炳之弟文用、文忠先后应召入侍忽必烈。文用曾在真定以词赋应试,被忽必烈留在身边主管文书,并为忽必烈延请亡金遗老。

      一二五一年蒙哥即位后,忽必烈受命治理汉地,在以后十年间,继续聚集流落的儒生和地方军阀的门客,在他周围组成一个幕僚集团。忽必烈通过他们以争取汉人地主、士大夫对他的支持。他们也力图影响忽必烈,使之接受以儒学为核心的封建文化和制度,以保护地主阶级的利益。

      用汉法治中原 忽必烈首先整治的地方是邢州。一二三六年,窝阔台在中原括户口后,将邢州一万五千户分赐给功臣斡鲁纳氏的两个答刺罕(牧人八答和启昔礼兄弟因报告王罕等偷袭成吉思汗的密谋有功,被成吉思汗赐号答刺罕,意为“大自在的人”,子孙世袭),由他们自派达鲁花赤统治。达鲁花赤肆意敲剥,百姓四处逃亡,十余年后,仅剩下五七百户。两答刺罕于是向忽必烈请求良吏代为治理。僧子聪、张文谦推荐真定儒者张耕、东平严实幕僚刘肃等安抚邢州。他们到邢州后,“洗涤蠹敝,革去贪暴,流亡复归”,据说不到几个月,邢州大治,户口增加几十倍。忽必烈由此更加深信儒吏。

      一二五二年,宋军攻打河南边地。忽必烈请准蒙哥在河南设经略司,任命忙哥、史天泽、杨惟中、赵璧为经略使。史天泽等至河南,打击贪淫暴戾的地方军阀刘福,将两个横暴的州县官处死,兴利除害,甚得民心。又组织兵民屯田唐、邓等州,置屯田万户府于邓州,加固城垣。

      一二五三年,蒙哥分赏诸王,忽必烈得到京兆封地。忽必烈建立京兆宣抚司,任命李兰和杨惟中等减关中常赋之半,处死横暴害民的郭千户,军帅的不法行为因而大减。一二五四年夏,忽必烈驻六盘山,命廉希宪代杨惟中为关西宣抚使,姚枢为劝农使,商挺为宣抚副使。廉希宪是汉化的畏兀儿人,自十九岁入侍忽必烈王府,得学汉儒经史。廉希宪等到任后,颇能注意民间疾苦。姚枢荐许衡为京兆提学,郡县都建学校,窝阔台时曾下令不得俘掠儒士为奴,京兆豪强多不奉行。廉希宪下令将俘掠的儒士,一律释放,编入儒籍。忽必烈在关中的一些措施,博得了汉人地主儒生的广泛支持。

      一二五六年,忽必烈又增受怀孟州封地。商挺受命兼治怀孟,对豪猾有所打击。一二六○年,忽必烈派幕僚覃澄为怀孟路总管。覃澄在当地开渠,引沁水溉田,讲求农桑种植之利,促进了当地农业的恢复和发展。

      编辑:汀滢

      忽必烈治理中原和蒙军的继续南侵(2)
      万王之王:马可-波罗眼中的忽必烈大汗

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