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      高校戏曲选修课成“抢手货”

      发布时间: 2019/10/8 0:22:42 被阅览数: 次 来源: 人民日报海外版
      文字 〖 〗 )
       周三下午,清华大学的蒙民伟音乐厅里弥漫着浓浓的京剧味,教室里时不时传来咿呀的丝弦与清脆的锣鼓声。新学期伊始,《京剧表演史论与生行艺术实践》及《旦行艺术实践》如约开课。在一学期的课程中,60位选课学生将在专业教师的指导下,练习唱腔、指法与形体动作,并将在期末汇演中表演《定军山》和《天女散花》。他们不是专业演员,也不是艺术团骨干,多是零基础的学生。
        从零基础开始培养
        在全国各地,像清华这样开设戏曲公共选修课的高校不在少数。选课季中,这些课程是学生们争抢的大热门。中国人民大学孙萍教授开设的《国剧艺术大观》只有120个课容量,但选课系统的候补名单里有三四百人;武汉大学易栋老师每学期都会开设《京剧历史与审美导引》《戏曲审美导论》《中国经典昆曲赏析》等通识课,每一门都非常抢手;四川大学学生高歌说,丁淑梅老师开设的戏曲课程《中华文化》很受欢迎,“被抽中需要一点运气”。
        20多年前,高校中开始零星出现戏曲类的公选课,“开课的初衷,是想和青年学生分享我所喜爱的艺术。”安徽大学文学院副教授徐强这样说。他从2000年起开设《京剧与中国文化》课程,让他意料不及的是,第一节课就座无虚席,他很快就将一个班扩容为两个班。
        2006年,教育部、文化部、财政部共同举办“高雅艺术进校园”活动,十多年来,近3000场京剧、昆曲、话剧等演出在高校上演。清华大学人文学院副教授陈为蓬说:“2005年《昆曲艺术欣赏》的第一堂课上,我问同学们有谁在现场看过昆曲,没有一个人举手,但现在总有将近1/3的同学看过。”徐强认为:“戏曲讲座、活动比较零散随机,相比之下,以公选课的形式进行戏曲教育有更强的系统性。”
        2015年,国务院办公厅颁发了《关于全面加强和改进学校美育工作的意见》。今年4月11日,教育部明确指出,“各高校要明确普及艺术教育管理机构,把公共艺术课程与艺术实践纳入高校人才培养方案,纳入学校教学计划,实行学分制管理”。清华大学艺术教育中心主任赵洪表示:“以往清华的戏曲教育是一种自觉的行为,很多戏曲课程是面向爱好者开设。随着政策的颁布与落实,我们开始以更高的站位去思考戏曲教育的意义,进一步扩大课程的覆盖面,让零基础的学生有机会接触戏曲,推动校园中形成传承中华优秀传统文化的浓厚氛围。”
        名师是大IP
        在四川大学学生高歌的成绩单上,除了一门川大校内的戏曲课,还有一门来自北京大学的《昆曲经典艺术鉴赏》。
        2009年,台湾作家白先勇发起的“昆曲传承计划”落地北大,随后,《经典昆曲欣赏》在北大开课。每周四下午,当张继青、蔡正仁等一位又一位艺术大咖走进北大,学生们总是早早挤满理科教学楼的教室。有时候,从四面八方赶来的昆曲爱好者不得不席地而坐。为了让这门广受关注的课程惠及更多学生,2016年起,北大在线教育平台“智慧树”上开设了网课,实现了跨校授课,并给予学分认证。高歌说,这门课包含了四节“见面课”,上课时,她和川大其他的选课学生一起集中到大教室中观看直播,主讲人会实时解答他们提出的问题。
        陈为蓬老师的《昆曲艺术欣赏》也是在2016年被搬到“学堂在线”慕课平台上。三年时间中,累计选课人数已近5万,中国民航大学、新疆医科大学厚博学院等全国各地的高校都曾将其纳入学分课的体系。
        武汉大学学生李明(化名)在上完易栋老师的戏曲理论课后,选了一节实践课。从小学习京剧的他到了课堂上才发现,表演教学的内容是武汉市地方传统戏剧汉剧,“我们选课都是冲着老师去的,谁也不知道是要学汉剧”。虽然出乎意料,他和大部分同学还是坚持了下来。在汉剧表演艺术家袁忠玉的指导下,李明在结课汇演上唱了汉剧《柜中缘》选段,又和另一位戏校的同学一起表演了“京汉两下锅”的《游龙戏凤》。一学期下来,“同学们不仅对汉剧有了基本的了解,还体验到了戏曲表演”。他说:“看10部戏也不如自己试着演一段,一演,就知道里面的讲究了。”
        从线下到线上,从赏析到实践,从京昆到地方戏,高校的戏曲课堂为学生走近传统文化提供了更多元的途径和选择。
        艺术教育也是情感教育
        在安徽大学的徐强老师看来,无论社团还是课程,戏曲艺术的教育“事在人为”:“只要能有几位积极的老师或者学生,这个事情就能够做好。”教师资源的匮乏,恰恰是许多高校面临的困境。徐强一直在寻找能接班的青年教师,却没有合适的人选,“年轻教师有较大的学术压力,很难有时间上课,而且我的课很特殊,是以学唱为主,和学生的互动很多”。
        赵洪坦言,如果没有人力和物力的投入,戏曲教育很难开展。她表示:“我们首先要明白艺术教育对人培养的重要性,有了认识的提升,才会有经费投入的保障;其次就是要有专门的机构和专业的教师去落实。”
        “选课的学生就像是一颗种子,会慢慢生根发芽、开花结果。”徐强说,他课堂上的学生来自不同地区、不同专业,“有一些学生后来爱上戏曲,去考中国戏曲学院研究生了。”
        赵洪认为,年轻的学生不一定都会去看戏听戏,但经过一学期的学习,将来在他们有时间、有机会的时候,就会更愿意去欣赏,也会懂得如何欣赏。“戏曲教育一方面是审美教育,我们要让学生们能近距离、全方位、多角度体验戏曲之美;另一方面是情感教育,在戏曲艺术生动的表现形式和深厚的文化蕴藏中,他们也会懂得中国人家国天下的情怀。”    □ 周 缘
      编辑:秋痕

      四川省泸州市泸县举行“礼润童心慧悦人生”开笔礼活动
      德国德累斯顿迎来“孔子学院日”

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